Other road users can’t know your intentions unless you show them. Indicating and signalling is needed in order to give sufficient warning to other road users about the intended action.
You must signal your intention to:
In practice, this means you must signal in every situation where you intend to change your road positioning, including:
You must always signal for long enough to give sufficient warning to other road users. How long depends on the situation - e.g. at least 5 seconds when moving from a stationary position at the side of the road.
Indicate in a way that cannot be misleading, and turn off your indicator when you have completed the manoeuvre.
Also, check that your indicator turns off once you have turned - if still on, other drivers will think that you intend to turn again.
Use your indicators even when you think you are alone. It’s the vehicles you aren't aware of that can present the greatest danger.
Watch out for how other vehicles are acting (slowing down, turning etc.) and don’t believe blindly in indicators. Other drivers may use their indicators too early or forget to cancel them after turning.
Blind spots are areas that can only be seen by looking over your shoulder. A lot of crashes occur due to drivers failing to check their blind spots before changing their road positioning.
Make sure that you check your mirrors and relevant blind spots before changing your road positioning.
The driver is allowed to give hand signals for changing direction, stop
The two official hand signals are:Straight arm - about to turn right Arm bent upward - about to slow or stop
You may only use your horn to warn other road users of your position or approach, e.g. when coming out of driveways with limited vision, or to get animals off the road.
Try to give plenty of warning to drivers behind you by braking early and then slowing gradually. Braking hard can be dangerous if the driver behind you doesn’t react in time, which is a common cause of rear-end crashes.
Also, be aware of brake lights on vehicles in front of you since this is an indication that you will have to slow down.
Making eye contact is especially important at intersections.